What is a surgeon?
Surgeons perform operations, among other things: Sometimes diagnosis and therapy of complaints, diseases, injuries or malformations require medical interventions. Surgeons perform surgery in different specialties, depending on their role and qualifications.
Surgeons also prepare clinical findings and diagnoses that are necessary for a possible intervention. This is done by means of instrumental and non-instrumental diagnostics. Conservative measures such as wound care / wound treatment also fall within a surgeon's remit.
Eight specialities: Diverse surgery tasks
General surgeons are responsible for the broadest range of treatments. Their field of activity includes the internal organs, the thoracic cavity and vascular diseases. In addition, general surgeons also work in emergency care, among other things. There are also various surgical specialties:
Vascular surgeons operate on diseased blood vessels all over the body. This includes
- the treatment of venous diseases (for example varicose veins or deep vein thrombosis),
- operations on malformed vessels, ,
- the creation of vascular bypasses
- and the repair of blocked or dilated arteries.
If chronic venous diseases are left untreated, symptoms can worsen and the skin and tissue can change. Depending on the health condition and individual life circumstances, surgical measures are used in addition to conservative therapy measures, such as medical compression stockings.
Orthopaedics and trauma surgery
Specialists in orthopaedics and trauma surgery treat diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Examples:
- Surgical reconstruction and therapy of injuries to the musculoskeletal system, for example following a cruciate ligament tear or shoulder dislocation
- Joint surgery, for example for knee joint arthrosis or shoulder injuries
Plastic and cosmetic surgery
Specialists in plastic, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery make changes to organs or the external body image for functional or aesthetic-cosmetic reasons.
Cosmetic surgery is a sub-speciality of plastic surgery. It includes interventions that are not disease-related, but are merely done to enhance a person's appearance. Plastic surgery covers four sub-areas:
- Cosmetic surgery
- Reconstructive surgery
- Burn surgery
- Hand surgery
Cardiac surgery specialises in the surgical treatment of congenital and acquired diseases of the heart and the vessels close to the heart, for example the placement of bypasses.
Paediatric surgery is used for the diagnosis and surgical treatment of, for example, malformations and the results of accidents. Paediatric surgeons operate in a wide range of fields, including general, visceral, thoracic and plastic surgery.
Thoracic surgery is used to treat diseases, injuries and malformations of the chest area (thorax). Surgery is performed on the lungs, trachea and bronchi, as well as the pleura.
Visceral surgery is also called “abdominal surgery”. It is used to treat diseases and injuries in internal organs, especially the oesophagus, pancreas, liver, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, bile ducts, stomach and intestines.
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